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Senin, 13 Februari 2012

THE LEGAL ANALYSIS OF MoU ON ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE PROVINCE OF ACEH OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA, AND THE STATES OF CALIFORNIA, ILLIONOIS AND WISCONSIN OF THE USA


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

            On November 18, 2008, Governor of the Province of Aceh of the Republic of Indonesia Irwandi Yusuf was signed a Memorandum of Understanding (Mou) on Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Land Degradation (REDD) between several Governor of the States of the USA. The Memorandum of Understanding commits the California, Illinois and Wisconsin to work with the governors of six states and provinces within Indonesia and Brazil to help slow and stop tropical deforestation, a source of roughly 20 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. The governors include Governor Antônio Waldez Góes da Silva of Amapa, Brazil; Governor Eduardo Braga of Amazonas, Brazil; Governor Blario Maggi of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Governor Ana Júla de Vasconcelos Carepa of Para, Brazil; Governor Yusof Irwandi of Aceh, Indonesia; and Governor Barnamas Suebu of Papua, Indonesia.[1]
            The agreement was proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and land degradation; the signatories of the agreement intend to develop a new effective plan to cope with that issue. Governor Schwarzenegger said. "With this agreement, we are focusing our collective efforts on the problem and requiring our states to jointly develop rules, incentives and tools to ensure reduced emissions from deforestation and land degradation. We are also sending a strong message that this issue should be front and center during negotiations for the next global agreement on climate change."[2]
            According to Teuku Rafli Pasha[3], Governor Irwandi was invited personally by Arnold Schwarzenegger because he amazed with Irwandi’s innovative program Aceh Green; Arnold also said that Aceh Green Program will make Aceh plays a significant role in global scope in order to reduce the emission of green house effect.[4]
            But, based on information expressed by a current research, Governor Irwandi did not hold a full power to sign the MoU at that time and they assume that the MoU is illegal. However, according to my analysis of this case, that is not true, and there are several arguments  can support and verify that this MoU is legal.

THE LEGAL STATUS OF THIRD STATES ACCORDING TO 1969 VIENNA CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF TREATY


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.          BACKGROUND
In todays world, cooperation among states is one thing that cannot be avoided. Kind of lifes in the world has become complex and potent to raise many problems. To avoid all of these problems, of course the international society has to have a rule or norm. This rule’s purpose not only to avoid the problems but also to keep the peace regarding relationship among states. Realization of this cooperation will be applied in a treaty.
Treaty is a significant thing in a state relationship so it is one of sources of international law. It is caused of various international society practices use a treaty to control their business and maintain the relation among them. So, clearly the role of treaty is very important.
International society then look that they need to have a law according to this. It is thought that they will have a reference and orientation if they want to make a relation or agreement with other countries. There are some international law codification relate to treaty, but the most important instrument is 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties because it regulate specificly about the general principle of international law of treaty.
One of significant things is the provisions of the 1969 Vienna Convention in relation to treaties and third states. The relevant provisions in regard to third states specifically consist in Chapter III Section 4 entitled “ Treaties and Third States” Articles 34 – 38.

B.           PROBLEMS IDENTIFICATION
Based on the background which was mentioned above this mini research paper will elaborate:
·         What is meant by a third state in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties?
·         What are the provisions in regard of third state which are mentioned in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties?


THE ELEMENTS OF GENOCIDE UNDER THE 1948 CONVENTION ON GENOCIDE


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A.                BACKGROUND
The year 2008 marks the 60th anniversary of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. It is also the 20th anniversary of the ratification of this treaty by the United States. As Americans consider our country’s role in the world in the years to come, we are convinced that the U.S. government can and must do more to pre­vent genocide, a crime that threatens not only our values, but our national interests. The world agrees that genocide is unacceptable and yet genocide and mass killings continue. [1]
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951.

ASAS – ASAS DALAM HUKUM PERDATA, HUKUM DAGANG, HUKUM ADAT, DAN HUKUM ISLAM


A.                Asas – Asas Hukum Perdata
Hukum perdata adalah aturan – aturan hukum yang mengatur tingkah laku setiap orang terhadap orang lain yang berkaitan dengan hak dan kewajiban yang timbul dalam pergaulan masyarakat maupun keluarga.
Hukum perdata dibagi 2, yaitu:
·         Hukum Perdata Materil, yaitu mengatur kepentingan – kepentingan perdata setiap subjek hukum ( substansi hukum ).
·         Hukum Perdata Formil, yaitu mengatur bagaimana cara seseorang mempertahankan haknya apabila dilanggar oleh orang lain.
Sistimatika Hukum Perdata dibagi menjadi beberapa bagian, dalam beberapa bagian Buku, yaitu ;
1. Buku 1, Tentang Orang
2. Buku 2, Tentang Benda
3. Buku 3, Tentang Perikatan
4. Buku 4, Tentang Pembuktian dan Daluwarsa

Hukum Asuransi


A.     Pengaturan Asuransi
§  KUHPerdata
§  KUHD (Ps. 246 s/d 308)
§  UU Nomor 2 Th 1992 tentang Usaha Perasuransian
§  Keppres RI No. 40 Th ttg Usaha di Bidang Asuransi Kerugian

PENDAFTARAN TANAH ( Peraturan Pemerintah No. 24 tahun 1997 )


Pendaftaran tanah adalah serangkaian kegiatan yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah secara terus menerus, berkesinambungan dan teratur, meliputi pengumpulan, pengolahan, pembukuan, dan penyajian serta pemeliharaan data fisik dan data yuridis, dalam bentuk peta dan daftar, mengenai bidang-bidang tanah dan satuan-satuan rumah susun, termasuk pemberian surat tanda bukti hanya bagi bidang-bidang tanah yang sudah ada haknya, dan hak milik atas satuan rumah susun serta hak-hak tertentu yang membebaninnya. Pendaftaran tanah diatur sebelumnya dalam Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 10 Tahun 1961 tentang Pendaftaran Tanah.
Tujuan Pendaftaran Tanah
Pendaftaran tanah bertujuan untuk memberikan kepastian hukum dan perlindungan hukum kepada pemegang hak atas suatu bidang tanah, satuan rumah susun dan hak-hak lain yang terdaftar, agar dengan mudah dapat membuktikan dirinya sebagai pemegang hak yang bersangkutan, untuk menyediakan informasi kepada pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan, termasuk Pemerintah agar dapat memperoleh data yang diperlukan dalam mengadakan perbuatan-perbuatan hukum sehubungan dengan tanah dan rumah susun, dan untuk dapat terselenggaranya tertib administrasi pertanahan.