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Senin, 13 Februari 2012

THE LEGAL ANALYSIS OF MoU ON ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE PROVINCE OF ACEH OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA, AND THE STATES OF CALIFORNIA, ILLIONOIS AND WISCONSIN OF THE USA


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

            On November 18, 2008, Governor of the Province of Aceh of the Republic of Indonesia Irwandi Yusuf was signed a Memorandum of Understanding (Mou) on Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Land Degradation (REDD) between several Governor of the States of the USA. The Memorandum of Understanding commits the California, Illinois and Wisconsin to work with the governors of six states and provinces within Indonesia and Brazil to help slow and stop tropical deforestation, a source of roughly 20 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. The governors include Governor Antônio Waldez Góes da Silva of Amapa, Brazil; Governor Eduardo Braga of Amazonas, Brazil; Governor Blario Maggi of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Governor Ana Júla de Vasconcelos Carepa of Para, Brazil; Governor Yusof Irwandi of Aceh, Indonesia; and Governor Barnamas Suebu of Papua, Indonesia.[1]
            The agreement was proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and land degradation; the signatories of the agreement intend to develop a new effective plan to cope with that issue. Governor Schwarzenegger said. "With this agreement, we are focusing our collective efforts on the problem and requiring our states to jointly develop rules, incentives and tools to ensure reduced emissions from deforestation and land degradation. We are also sending a strong message that this issue should be front and center during negotiations for the next global agreement on climate change."[2]
            According to Teuku Rafli Pasha[3], Governor Irwandi was invited personally by Arnold Schwarzenegger because he amazed with Irwandi’s innovative program Aceh Green; Arnold also said that Aceh Green Program will make Aceh plays a significant role in global scope in order to reduce the emission of green house effect.[4]
            But, based on information expressed by a current research, Governor Irwandi did not hold a full power to sign the MoU at that time and they assume that the MoU is illegal. However, according to my analysis of this case, that is not true, and there are several arguments  can support and verify that this MoU is legal.










CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL BASIS

            The definition of treaty is described in Article 2 para. 1(a) of Vienna Convention[5]:”treaty means an international agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation”. According to this, we can make a simple decision about the elements required of treaty: between states, in written form, and governed by international law. All of these elements have to be fullfiled of a treaty.
            There are several terms that relate to treaty, such as convention, declaration, statute, charter, covenant, agreement, pact, and protocol[6]. But, how about MoU?  "The term memorandum of understanding (MoU) is often used to denote a less formal international instrument than a typical treaty or international agreement. It often sets out operational arrangements under a framework international agreement. It is also used for the regulation of technical or detailed matters; An MoU typically consists of a single instrument and is entered into among States and/or international organizations. The United Nations usually concludes MoU with Member States in order to organize its peacekeeping operations or to arrange United Nations conferences. The United Nations also concludes M.O.U.s regarding cooperation with other international organizations. The United Nations considers M.O.U.s to be binding and registers them if submitted by a party or if the United Nations is a party."[7] Another definition, A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in situations where the parties cannot create a legally enforceable agreement.[8]          The Province of Aceh under Article 8 UU No. 11/2006[9] is given a special autonomy status to make an international cooperation. Pasal 8(1): Rencana persetujuan internasional yang berkaitan langsung dengan Pemerintahan Aceh yang dibuat oleh Pemerintah dilakukan dengan konsultasi dan persetujuan DPRA”. Although Aceh Government can build international cooperation, they cannot make an agreement with international in part of political aspect, defense and security of nation, judicial, national monetary and fiscal, and religion.[10]
            Well, in term of full power there are several definitions given:
Article 2 para. 1 (c)[11], “full powers” means a document emanating from the competent authority of a State designating a person or persons to represent the State for negotiating, adopting or authenticating the text of a treaty, for expressing the consent of the State to be bound by a treaty, or for accomplishing any other act with respect to a treaty;
Article 1 para. 1[12], Surat Kuasa (Full Powers) adalah surat yang dikeluarkan oleh Presiden atau Menteri yang memberikan kuasa kepada satu atau beberapa orang yang mewakili Pemerintah Republik Indonesia untuk menandatangani atau menerima naskah perjanjian, menyatakan persetujuan negara untuk mengikatkan diri pada perjanjian, dan/atau rnenyelesaikan hal-hal lain yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan perjanjian internasional.
            The rule of full powers under 1969 Vienna Convention in Article 7:
1. A person is considered as representing a State for the purpose of adopting or authenticating the text of a treaty or for the purpose of expressing the consent of the State to be bound by a treaty if: (a) he produces appropriate full powers; or (b) it appears from the practice of the States concerned or from other circumstances that their intention was to consider that person as representing the State for such purposes and to dispense with full powers.
2. In virtue of their functions and without having to produce full powers, the following are considered as representing their State: (a) Heads of State, Heads of Government and Ministers for Foreign Affairs, for the purpose of performing all acts relating to the conclusion of a treaty; (b) heads of diplomatic missions, for the purpose of adopting the text of a treaty between the accrediting State and the State to which they are accredited; (c) representatives accredited by States to an international conference or to an international organization or one of its organs, for the purpose of adopting the text of a treaty in that conference, organization or organ.
Article 8: An act relating to the conclusion of a treaty performed by a person who cannot be considered under article 7 as authorized to represent a State for that purpose is without legal effect unless afterwards confirmed by that State.
CHAPTER III
ANALYSING DATA

            The agreement that was signed by Irwandi relates to his initiative program ‘Aceh Green’ or ‘the Green Economic Development and Investment Strategy fo Aceh. One of the purpose of this concept is Aceh commits to prevent and preserve all of natural resources in Aceh and this program was absolutely agreed by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Governor Irwandi was called by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger because of this vision to attend and make a corporation according to this issue.
            As mentioned above, Memorandum of Understanding is used to less formal international instrument than a typical treaty or international agreement. Relating to MoU that was signed by Irwandi, the 3 requirements of treaty mentioned in 1969 Vienna Convention has been fulfilled. UU No. 32/2004 also gives a legal access to provincial government to make an international cooperation relating to this aspect. The legal basis still ambiguous relating to the procedure of making the Mou is Article 8(1) UU No. 11/2006[13]. This article mentions that an international agreement that is build by the Government of Aceh has to be consulted and considered by DPRA. We can analyse that the donation of Aceh Green Program comes from APBA (provincial fund) and APBA is formulated by DPRA. So, it means that DPRA agree with the program. Furthermore, the MoU on Environmental Cooperation is the advancement of the program in order to create the visions that was reported. If we look into the provisions of the MoU[14] in Article 12: “The Parties acknowledge that this Memorandum of Understanding is only intended to provide for cooperation between the Parties, and does not create any legally binding rights or obligations”. This MoU does not like other treaty as usuall and create any legally binding. it only to build a strong friendship between both countries and do a cooperative efforts focused on environmental issue. So, Governor Irwandi interprets that there are no illegal procedures about signing the MoU.
            In the provision of full powers, national constitution regulates a strong rule in part of an international agreements. It can be found in Article 7 of UU No. 24/2000[15]. 1969 Vienna Convention regulate the same provisions in regard to full power with  UU No. 24/2000. Both regulations see full power is on thing that very important. But in article 8 of Vienna convention, in case of if someone who cannot show the full power document in making an international agreement considered as illegal,except if the national government see the agreement is legal. As long as we know, the MoU signed by Irwandi get a positive support by President SBY, because it relates to environmental issue.
                I Wayan Parthiana in his book “ Hukum Perjanjian Internasional”[16] mentioned that full power document is not a significant condition that make a treaty is illegal. The important thing of this is each parties of an agreement know the capacity each other or know who is she or he. Relating to the case, of course others governor of USA know who Irwandi is. So, based on this the agreement is legal.





CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION

            Under UU No. 11/2006, the Provincial Government of Aceh is given a chance to make an international cooperation in some aspects, including on environmental cooperation. Irwandi Yusuf as his capacity as Governor of Aceh Province has signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation with the State of California, Illionis and Wisconsin of the United States of America. Although some people consider that the MoU is illegal, because of Irwandi did not hold a full power to sign the MoU at that time. But in my analysis that argument was wrong. My analysis based on these reasons:
a.       The term of MoU itself is different with the real definition of treaty; MoU is often used to denote a less formal international instrument than a typical treaty or international agreement. So, the provisions relate to a treaty which are mentioned in some regulation explained above cannot be totally implemented and the characteristic of the MoU itself only to build a cooperative plan to save the environment.
b.      The requirements of a treaty has been fulfilled.
c.       In todays world, without holding full power is not a condition that make an international cooperation illegal. The important thing is each parties know the capacity of other parties of a treaty and the MoU is accepted by the national government.



BIBLYOGRAPHY
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969;
I Wayan Parthiana, SH. MH, Hukum Perjanjian Internasional Bagian 1, Bandung: Penerbit Mandar Maju, 2002;
United Nations, Treaty Handbook ,New York: Treaty Section of the Office of Legal Affairs, 2006;
Republik Indonesia, “Undang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2006 Tentang Pemerintahan Aceh”;
Republik Indonesia, “UU No. 32 Tahun 2004 Tentang Pemerintahan Daerah”;
Republik Indonesia, “Undang-Undang No. 24 Tahun 2000 Tentang Perjanjian Internasional”;
Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation Between The Province of Aceh of The Republic of Indonesia, and The States of California, Illinois and Wisconsin of The United States of America;






[1] www.guianashield.org
[2] ibid
[3] Teuku Rafli Pasha adalah Koordinator Tim Asistensi Pemerintah Aceh dan didampingi oleh Tim Komunikasi, Ahmad Kandang yang juga hadir dalam pertemuan tersebut.
[4] www.beritasore.com
[5] Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
[6] Didalam Bahasa Inggris, dikenal banyak istilah yang digunakan untuk menyebut suatu perjanjian internasional. Beberapa istilah itu antara lain; treaty, convention, agreement, arrangement, declaration, charter, covenant, statute, protocol, pact, process verbal, modus Vivendi, act, final act, general act. …. Istilah-istilah tersebut satu dengan lainnya tidak begitu jelas perbedaannya, bahkan beberapa dari istilah itu juga tidak jelas artinya dan dalam hal apa saja harus digunakan, See I Wayan Parthiana, SH. MH, Hukum Perjanjian Internasional Bagian 1, Bandung: Penerbit Mandar Maju, 2002, p. 26
[7] United Nations, Treaty Handbook ,New York: Treaty Section of the Office of Legal Affairs, 2006, p.61
[8] www.wikipedia.com
[9] Republik Indonesia, “Undang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2006 Tentang Pemerintahan Aceh”, BAB IV, pasal 8(1).
[10] UU No. 32 Tahun 2004 Tentang Pemerintahan Daerah Pasal 10 ayat (1): Pemerintahan daerah menyelenggarakan urusan pemerintahan yang menjadi kewenangannya, kecuali urusan pemerintahan yang oleh Undang-Undang ini ditentukan menjadi urusan Pemerintah. (3) Urusan pemerintahan yang menjadi urusan Pemerintah sebagaimana dimaksudkan pada ayat (1) meliputi: a. politik luar negeri; b. pertahanan; c. keamanan; d. yustisi; e. moneter dan fiscal nasional; dan f. agama.
[11] Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969
[12] Republik Indonesia, “Undang-Undang No. 24 Tahun 2000 Tentang Perjanjian Internasional”, BAB I pasal 1(1).
[13] UU No. 11 Tahun 2006 Tentang Pemerintahan Aceh Pasal 8(1): Rencana persetujuan internasional yang berkaitan langsung dengan Pemerintahan Aceh yang dibuat oleh Pemerintah dilakukan dengan konsultasi dan pertimbangan DPRA.
[14] Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation Between The Province of Aceh of The Republic of Indonesia, and The States of California, Illinois and Wisconsin of The United States of America
[15] Pasal 7 (1) Seseorang yang mewakili Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, dengan tujuan menerima atau menandatangani naskah suatu perjanjian atau mengikatkan diri pada perjanjian internasional, memerlukan Surat Kuasa. (2) Pejabat yang tidak memerlukan Surat Kuasa sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 1 Angka 3 adalah :a. Presiden, dan b. Menteri; (3) Satu atau beberapa orang yang menghadiri, merundingkan, dan/atau menerima hasil akhir suatu pertemuan internasional, memerlukan Surat Kepercayaan. (4) Surat Kuasa dapat diberikan secara terpisah atau disatukan dengan Surat Kepercayaan, sepanjang dimungkinkan, menurut ketentuan dalam suatu perjanjian internasional atau pertemuan internasional. (5) Penandatangan suatu perjanjian internasional yang menyangkut kerja sama teknis sebagai pelaksanaan dari perjanjian yang sudah berlaku dan materinya berada dalam lingkup kewenangan suatu lembaga negara atau lembaga pemerintah, baik departemen maupun non departemen, dilakukan tanpa memerlukan Surat Kuasa.
[16] “kecenderungan masyarakat international untuk tidak terlalu menjadikan kuasa penuh sebagai syarat formal untuk dapat melakukan perundingan maupun mengadopsi naskah  suatu perjanjian internasional, mengingat kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi telekomunikasi, transportasi, dan informasi… see I. Wayan Parthiana, SH. MH, Hukum Perjanjian Internasional Bagian 1, Bandung: Penerbit Mandar Maju, 2002, p.105

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